People had been used to living for sunrise and resting for sunset. Till in 1879, Edison invented the incandescent light bulb, with round bulb and black tungsten accompanying people throughout the long dark night. But people gradually came to realize its less green and low energy efficiency, and the energy-saving lamps began to emerge since then.
Countries successively ban incandescent bulb
When incandescent lamp is in circuit, the thermal effect of current flowing through a filament makes incandescent lamps a continuous visible light and infrared light. Due to the high filament temperature, only about 10% electrical energy being converted to light energy, most is wasted in form of infrared radiation, thus power consumption resulting in large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Also, the high temperature causes quick evaporate, so greatly shorten life into only about 2,200 hrs.
To promote reducing greenhouse gases and releasing global warming, States continue to ban production and use of incandescent bulbs. Back in 2007, Australia was first issued regulations prohibiting the incandescent lamps, then Canada also announced to do so from 2012, and the EU passed the same regulations in March 2009.
China is a large country of lighting production and consumption. As estimated, China's lighting electricity consumption accounts for about 12% of society, so the potential is high in using efficient lighting products to replace incandescent, energy-saving and emission reduction. In 2011, the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Commerce, General Administration of Customs, State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and the State Administration of Quality Supervision recently jointly issued "on the gradual prohibition of the import and sale of ordinary lighting incandescent bulletin" (hereinafter referred to as "notice"). In the notice, according to the watt level, it will phase out the import and the sale of general lighting incandescent lamps. Planning to October 1, 2016, it will ban the import and sale of 15 watts and above general lighting incandescent. Today, "notice" time limit is to, the penetration rate of energy-saving lamps in China is still low, especially in rural areas, the use of incandescent is still in a large proportion.
Energy saving lamps save electricity and money
Jiang Kejun, the National Development and Reform Commission Energy Research Institute researcher, told the "Life Times" reporter, under the premise ofachieving the same lighting effects, energy-saving lamps’ power consumption of is 1/5 of ordinary incandescent, but the lifetime is 6 times of ordinary incandescent. Qualified energy-saving lamps’ lifetime is usually more than 6,000 hours. To give a simple example, the light of a 13-watt energy-saving lamp equals to a 60-watt incandescent, so energy-saving lamps can save 75% of electricity. An Energy Star issued by a joint effort between the US Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency and targeted at consumer electronics, reports that if all US households replace an incandescent lamp with an energy-saving lamp, the saved electricity in a year can support 3 million households, and the reduction of carbon emissions equals to 800,000 vehicles emissions.
Compared with incandescent, energy-saving lamps is slightly higher in price. So some people will have questions: will the energy-saving lamps really save? We might make a well count: If you buy a 100-watt incandescent bulb, and you use it for 8 hours a day, then the electricity in a year is 292 kWh.According to 5 angle for one watt to count, the annual electricity bill is 146 yuan. If you use energy-saving lamps, it will only be 20 wattsto achieve the same brightness.Similarly, if a day with 8 hours, then a year is only 58.4 kWh, and the electric charge is only 29.2 yuan. The annual electricity savings is much higher than the lamp price difference,in addition, the life expectancy of energy-saving lamps is longer. So from the long-term point of view, energy-saving lamps certainly save more money.
Waste energy-saving lamp being a problem
Vigorously promoting energy-saving lamps will save resources, ease the pressure on the environment, so many people applauded. However, differing from the situation of "the Government actively develop policies to guide the recovery and treatment, the formation of habits and actively participate in recycling,” in foreign countries, China's energy-saving lamps recycling work is still in its infancy, ordinary people also know little aboutthe hazards of waste energy-saving lamps for the environment.
Energy-saving lamps containing mercury causes doubts from web, that it may be harmful to health, some even said: "the mercury vapo from broken energy-saving lamp can kill people!" In fact, it only contains micro mercury. Country regulates 5 mg in each energy-saving lamp and not exceeding 1 mg for countries bidding for each while a household mercury thermometers contains 100~600 times of an energy-saving lamp. The using course is generally not harmful to human health.
What we should really concern is, a lot of broken energy-saving lamps are buried or exposed to the air, causing environmental hazard. Waste burning will produce atomic mercury vapor into the atmosphere, then settling into soil or rivers and with microbes into organic mercury compounds (methyl mercury), which can be dissolved in fat, and absorbed by the intestines, lungs, skin, into the blood and accumulate in the kidneys, brain and other organs of the human body, leading to chronic poisoning. However, the existence and use of energy-saving lamps are very scattered, as long as the right method during the recovery process there would be no problem. Japan’s recycle program is very strict, in Tokyo, the government requires energy-saving lamp in a plastic garbage bag which says "hazardous waste", and prohibits being mixed with the waste of resources. Jiang kejun, hoped relevant departments as soon as possible raise relevant policies, it may establish waste energy-saving lamp recycling box in the community or supermarket, and also set ways of "old-for-new" or give small gifts to encourage public awareness of recycling habit as soon as possible.
LED leads new trend of energy-saving
To solve the environmental pollution from lighting source, scientists have been actively engaged in research and development of mercury-free light. LED is a new technique developed in the middle of 20th century, with being an alternative light source as the direction of the lighting industry. LED energy-saving lamps are high-brightness white LED light source, high efficiency, low power consumption, can transform 90% electricity into visible light, with only 25% source consumption of energy saving lamps; without mercury and other hazardous substances, waste recycling and no pollution; and is small volume, light weight, can withstand high mechanical shock and vibration, not easily broken, with an average life of 100,000 hours and service life of up to 5-10yrs. Reducing unit costs while saving much energy, which undoubtedly has a very important meaning for China intense energy.
China plans in 2016, from the production end, for total phase-out of incandescent bulbs. Now, the LED price of four to five yuan is close to incandescent bulbs of three yuan, filled up by only 2 kwh. The low prices are likely to "ripen" intelligent lighting market.